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How do you install trench drainage?How do you install trench drainage?Pour and compact about 3 inches of gravel or landscaping stone along the bottom of the trench. This will act as bedding for the drainage piping. Install an inlet grate at the point where the water pools the most. Secure as many fittings as necessary for your pipe system to extend from the inlet grate to the water outlet point.How to Install a French Drain - The Home Depot How does a drain pipe work?How does a drain pipe work?Drain pipes take the wastewater to the soil stack; through the stack, sewer gases are carried up to the roof through vent lines. All the faucets and water appliances in a house use this same system of drains, pipes, and vents.Figuring Out Your Drain-Waste-Vent Lines - dummies How to install in ground drainage system?How to install in ground drainage system?Install an In-Ground Drainage System 1 Start digging. Dig a hole deep enough to accommodate your dry well and the overflow tube. drainage pipe installation guide in japan 2 Install the dry well. Knock out the drainage ports in the sides of the dry well. drainage pipe installation guide in japan 3 Connect the drain tubeInstall an In-Ground Drainage System (DIY) Family Handyman
Instructional Guides - NDS
Drainage. Definitive Drainage Guide French Drain Guide Principles of Exterior Drainage - Full Course Principles of Exterior Drainage - Quick Review Principles of Exterior Drainage - Quick Review - En Espanol EZ-Drain/EZflow Installation Manual Drainage Pipe Guide Flow Capacity Charts. NDS Channel Grate Outlet Flow Capacities2015 Plumbing Rough In Checklist - MyBuildingPermitVent pipe inverts are taken off above the center line of horizontal drainage pipe, except horizontal wet vents. (UPC 905.2) Aggregate vent areas must be > to the building drain. (UPC 904.1) Vents terminate a minimum 6 above roof line (10 in high snow load areas). (UPC 906.1 906.7)3. Before installation of the Drain Pump Mitsubishi drainage pipe installation guide in japanIn case that plural drain pipes are installed, install the main pipe so that it comes approximately 10 cm lower than the drain outlet and the pipes must be made of material of VP30 or similar and they should be falling slope (1/100 or more).
Must include: japan19A NCAC 02D .0421 INSTALLATION OF DRIVEWAY PIPE
19a ncac 02d .0421 installation of driveway pipe (a) The Department of Transportation shall be responsible for the installation and costs of pipe lines in the drainage ditch along State-maintained roads and within State-maintained right-of-way or easement at entrances to private
Must include:japan3-in-1 SolutionAnother option is to use 2", 3", or 4" PVC pipe cut the correct size holes in the lineals, and cut the ends of the connecting pipe at an angle to keep pipe ends from blocking flow into lineals after pipe is inserted. Drainage disposal must comply with local codes and practices. (See Form-A-Drain Inspector Guide
Must include:japanADVANCED DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Drains and Drainage - Drains and drainage parts are used to build, maintain, and repair drains and drain systems. Drains and drainage pipes divert water away from indoor and outdoor areas to prevent flooding and water damage.
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Downspout Installation Video View Video ADS Joint Performance View Video Advanced Drainage Systems Stormtech MC-4500 Chamber Installation View Video Nyloplast Installation Video View Video Nyloplast vs. Precast Concrete Structure Installation Comparison Video View Video INSERTA TEE Condensed Installation Video View Video FLEXSTORM Inlet Filters, CATCH-IT Install View Video
Must include:japanAdvanced Drainage Systems Launches ADS Installation drainage pipe installation guide in japanAdvanced Drainage Systems Marketing Tori Durliat, 419-424-8275 [email protected] or Investor Relations Mike Higgins, 614-658-0277 [email protected] Site Navigation Home
Must include:japanAdvanced Drainage Systems Mobile Apps Installation Installation instructions are written in English and Spanish for SaniTite HP, HP Storm, and N-12 Pipe. Advanced Drainage Systems, Inc. provides a straight forward interface which enables users to locate information on topics such as product handling, storage, joint assembly, and coverage heights.
Must include: japanDrainage Pipe - Grainger Industrial Supply
Advanced Drainage Systems&Bend-a-Drain pipes allow you to expand the pipe lengthwise and adjust it into the desired angular position. Suitable for use in above and below ground downspout drainage, low spot drainage, and in french drain applications.
Must include:japanFiguring Out Your Drain-Waste-Vent Lines - dummiesIf you have to make plumbing repairs around your home, it helps to understand your drain-waste-vent system (DWV). The fat pipes in your house make up the DWV, carrying wastewater to a city sewer line or your private sewer treatment facility (called a septic tank and field). The drainpipes collect the water from sinks, showers,
Must include:japanHow to Install Drainage in a Lawn - The SpruceThe most commonly used drain pipe or drainage tile is a corrugated, slotted pipe usually four inches in diameter. Commonly called Big O, this pipe is used in the vast majority of drainage systems on golf courses and in the landscape. The pipe is both able to move large amounts of water and receive water from the surrounding soil.
Must include: japanHow to Install a Bathroom Sink Drain 4 Steps (with drainage pipe installation guide in japan
You simply slip a nut onto the waste drain and press it against the other pipe, then hand tighten the nut. No washers are required here. Next, find the washer that will fit onto the drain under the sink. Youll note one of them is much too loose, but the other one fits just right. Place a slip joint nut on the pipe first, followed by the washer.
Must include:japanHow to Install a Black Corrugated Drainage Pipe HunkerCorrugated plastic drainage pipe (often known as a "french drain" or "weeping tile") is a flexible pipe perforated with small holes on one side that allow water to enter the pipe from the surrounding soil. These pipes can be installed underneath a lawn to provide an
Must include:japanHow to Install a French Drain - The Home DepotSet the Pipe Drain in the Trench Lay the connected pipe structure in the trench on top of the layer of crushed stone, and make sure the drainage holes in the perforated pipe are pointed downwards. Test the flow of the drain by pouring water into the inlet grate. 7
Must include: japanHow to Install a French Drain - This Old House
Here, the collector pipes will drain to a plastic sump pit, where a pump ejects the water up and out to the surface of the ground or to a drywell. If the pump drains to the surface, its very important that the discharge be at least 10 feet from the house, otherwise the water can just drain back down to the footing and create a nearly endless drainage pipe installation guide in japan
Must include:japanInstallation Guidance - ACO DrainInstallation devices are used to align channels to create a complete trench run. Once the installation is complete using these devices the concrete is poured around the device and channels. Installation devices allow a single concrete pour.
Must include:japanInstallation Resources BLÜCHERInstallation Instructions. Get the details and direction you need for every product we carry. View All Installation Instructions. Installation Videos. View our complete library of installation videos. These videos should be seen as a supplement to the products installation instructions to help guide you through the installation process drainage pipe installation guide in japan
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Trench Drain Systems offers NDS installation guides for the Duraslope and mini channel lines. Request a free quote or call our experts 610-638-1221 today!
Must include:japanPipeline Separation Design Installation GuidancePipe wall thickness to address internal and external pressures and forces Corrosion control needs and methods Valves for isolation and drainage Pipe jointing methods and Thrust restraint and control Pipeline Separation Design Installation Reference Guide Page 3
Must include:japanSTORM WATER PROJECT COST ESTIMATES LOCATION 7. Construct 27" diameter rcp storm drain pipe 1,030 lf. $81.00 $83,430.00 8. Construct 30" diameter rcp storm drain pipe 750 lf. $91.75 $68,812.50 9. Construct 33" diameter rcp storm drain pipe 345 lf. $115.00 $39,675.00 10. Construct 48" diameter rcp storm drain pipe 600 lf. $145.00 $87,000.00 11.
Must include: japanShop Outdoor Drainage at Lowes
PROBLEM Backyard Drainage. Water pooling in a yard can kill grass, attract mosquitoes and create mud patches. SOLUTION Install a French drain, one of the top yard drainage solutions, to divert water away from problem areas. French Drain Components French Drain Pipe. Drainage Pipe
Must include:japanThe Basicsof Agricultural Tile DrainageDrain Tile Installation Equipment Tractor Backhoe Tile Plow Chain Trencher Wheel Trencher. Drain Tile Materials Clay Tile (organic soils) Concrete Tile (mineral soils) Drain Pipe Materials - Polyethylene Plastic - Single wall corrugated Dual wall (smooth wall) Water enters the pipe through slots in wall . I. The Drain A Guide on Doing Rough-In Bathroom PlumbingNext, install a pipe measuring 2 inches in diameter and allow it to run above the floor to a height of 18 inches. This pipe will work as the drain for your bathroom sink. Step 5. Next, split a 3-inch diameter pipe in half. Take an elbow (90 degrees) to join the split pipes such that one length will go upward to where the toilet will be install.
ASTM C1479 - 16(2021) Standard Practice for Installation drainage pipe installation guide in japan
C822 Terminology Relating to Concrete Pipe and Related Products. C1417 Specification for Manufacture of Reinforced Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe for Direct Design. C1479M Practice for Installation of Precast Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe ASTM D2729 Sewer Drain PipeASTM D2729 Sewer Drain Pipe. North American Pipe's Sewer Drain ASTM D2729 PVC product line is manufactured to meet the needs of residential waste water control, residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural rain leader and storm runoff systems, radon remediation and other non- pressure applications. With top quality raw materials andBelow ground drainage systems installation guidepipe has been laid these should be filled carefully ensuring that no voids remain under, or around, the sockets. Figure 5. OsmaDrain and Osma UltraRib pipes laid on trench bottom BELOW GROUND DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Installation Notes, Excavation and Bedding BELOW GROUND DRAINAGE SYSTEMS INSTALLATION GUIDE 6 Table 2.
CEILING CASSETTE INSTALLATION MANUAL
It is recommended to install the condensate drain system with hard polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe and matching connectors. Use piping of the same diameter or larger as the unit connection. The Ceiling Cassette drainage port diameter is 1.2 in. (31mm) OD. Pitch the condensate drain pipe at a gradual 2.5% pitch (Example ¼-in drop over a 10-in drainage pipe installation guide in japanChapter 7 - Underground Installation of PE PipingThe key objective of a PE pipe installation is to limit or control deflection. (In this chapter the term "deflection" will mean a change in vertical diameter of the pipe, unless otherwise stated.) The deflection of a PE pipe is the sum total of two major components the "installation deflection", which reflects the technique and care byChapter 7 Plumbing Connections - OregonDrain piping under the home must be installed according to the manufacturers installation instructions and the HUD Code. The building drain piping must be made of approved materials as listed in Table 7-6.1, and supported according to this code. Drain piping must be free from defect and be installed with acceptable workmanship.
DESIGN INSTALLATION GUIDE - Marley - Drainage
Compatible systems for pipe fitting connections 110mm and 160mm solid wall drainage, and 150mm Quantum sewer structured wall drainage. All products in the Sewers for Adoption range are suitable for both adoptable and non-adoptable applications.DO-IT-YOURSELF INSTALLATION TIPSIdentify condensate drain port(s) and choose the most appropriate drainage method for your installation. Attach PVC pipe to drain port and route in a downward slope to either a floor or sink drain. If there is not a drain nearby, a condensate pump is required (see below left). If drainage pipe is directed outside, ensure pipe will not freeze.Drain Hose Installation - Top Load Washer LG USA SupportInsert the end of the drain hose into the standpipe. Use a tie strap to secure the drain hose in place. If the drain is built into the wall, fasten the drain hose to one of the water inlet hoses with a tie strap. DO NOT install the end of the drain hose higher than 96 inches above the bottom of the washer. Connect the elbow bracket within 4 drainage pipe installation guide in japan
Drain Pipe Slope Calculator (According to International drainage pipe installation guide in japan
For household sinks, the drain pipe diameter is often either 1.5 or 2. Toilet waste lines are often 3 or 4. All the fixtures in your house will connect to a main drain line, which is usually 4 in diameter. Next, measure the length of the pipe you are working with. This will allow the total pipe drop (or fall) to Drainage Calculator by Pipe Size « Prinsco, IncThe Prinsco Drainage Calculator estimates the capacity of tile drainage systems. A particular pipe size on a given grade will only carry a certain amount of water. The steeper the grade of the installed pipe, the more water it will carry. Checks the capacity of drain tile on existing drainage systems; Sizes the piping needed on the acreage to drainage pipe installation guide in japanEZ Flow French Drain System Pipe Gravel-Free NDSOur EZ-Flow French Drain Systems offer a gravel-free alternative to a traditional french drain pipe, cutting installation time and cost in half. EZ-Flow Drains have specially engineered flow channels to improve flow rate, compared to traditional gravel and pipe. Visit our website to learn more!
Floor Drain Technical Data
drainage water. When sand laden drainage water enters the bucket, the sand falls to the bottom and the clear water flows over the top of the bucket into the waste line. DRAIN GASKET INSTALLATION DATA Jay R. Smith Speedi-Seal (Fig. 9502) and Speedi-Set (L) gaskets are available for use with cast iron, plastic, steel or glass pipe.Foundation Drains - Footing Drains, installation detailsFoundation drainage installation and troubleshooting this article defines, gives specifications for and discusses types of interior perimeter drain or french drain methods for stopping or preventing wet basements and crawl spaces. We describe the basic types of exterior and interior foundation drainage and de-watering systems for homes. Wet basement prevention cure, a guide to preventing drainage pipe installation guide in japanGENERAL SPECIFICATION FOR PLUMBING AND B2.3.5 Fixing UPVC Two-way Floor Drain Outlet B2.4 Jointing Pipes and Fittings B2.4.1 General B2.4.2 Jointing of Cast Iron Spigot and Socket Pipes B2.4.3 Jointing of Cast Iron Spun Spigot Pipes B2.4.4 Jointing of Steel Pipes B2.4.5 Jointing Steel Pipes to Cast Iron Pipes B2.4.6 Jointing Pipes to Clay Pipe
How to Build a French Drain HGTV
Lay the drainage pipe in a fabric lining in the dug ditch. Place drain pipe atop fabric lining, then add gravel, covering pipe completely. Leave approximately 5" between top of gravel and ground surface.How to Install PVC Gutters and Downpipes Dave's DIY TipsSep 28, 2020You now have a guide-line for all your gutter clips/brackets, as shown in the diagram below, ensuring the fall will be correct without any high spots that may cause water to pool in the gutter. Fit the gutter in place, which normally just clips in, with the appropriate stop ends, connectors and gutter outlet for the downpipe.How to Install Pop-up Drains in Your Lawn DoItYourselfSpecific installation instructions will vary depending upon your situation, but the following steps apply in general. Step 1 Measure Distance and Slope. Determine the distance from the source of the runoff to the water-safe drainage area. Ascertain that the slope is
How to Install a Plumbing Waste Vent System Home
2. Install the stack, which is a vertical cast-iron or ABS pipe with a 3- or 4-inch diameter that ties into the sewer. Tie it into the sewer with an appropriate sanitary tee or wye fitting drainage pipe installation guide in japanIllinois Drainage Guide (Online)Viewing this site requires a browser capable of displaying frames. Please upgrade your browser.Install an In-Ground Drainage System (DIY) Family HandymanDig an adjoining trench. Family Handyman. Dig the trench deep enough to drain downhill from the side of the dry well. You'll also need at least 3 in. of crushed rock to add to the bottom of the trench to promote water absorption.
Installation - Gain City Best-Electric Pte Ltd
PVC DRAINAGE PIPES. Using a bigger size drainage pipe with insulation and inclined at the proper gradient will provide a smoother flow of water. This will reduce frequent clogging that will increase the risks of leakages and condensation which may damage your furnishings and flooring.Installation of Catch Basins When and Why You Need ThemThe drain pipes should be installed with a slight fall-off toward the direction you want the water to move so that you don't have standing water within the pipes. Why Use A-1 to Install Catch Basins? Multi-year warranty on all our work; Protect your home or foundation and remove that standing water in your yard, landscaping, or drivewayInstalling PVC Pipe in Underground ApplicationsContact Charlotte Pipe Technical Services for a suggested long-form specification for underground installation of plastic pipe and for a drawing showing a typical trench detail. Charlotte Pipe and Foundry Company P.O. Box 35430, Charlotte, NC 28235 1-800-438-6091 704-348-6450 charlottepipe
Installing a French Drain Fix Flooding With This DIY drainage pipe installation guide in japan
May 07, 2018If you do use a drain pipe, Alan says to make sure it has a stocking or water-penetrative cover to ensure it doesnt clog. Youll need these additional tools if you include a drainage pipe in drainage pipe installation guide in japanInstalling a Residential Sewer Line2 INTRODUCTION Plastics Technical Manual Charlotte Pipe&has been relentless in our commitment to quality and service for more than a century. Through the years we have broadened and enhanced our product lines to betterNDS 40-in L x 5-in W Channel Drain Kit in the Outdoor drainage pipe installation guide in japanDrain excess water flooding hards capes to prevent costly property damage with the 5 in. pro series channel drain, deep profile, the most durable modular drain system in its class. Captures moderate flows from driveways, patios, courtyards, walkways, and sports facilities, and conveys to drain pipe.
PLUMBING - Welland
2. The Drainage System This system consists of the drain and sewer pipes which convey waste fluids from the fixtures to a place of disposal which may be the municipal sewer system, or a septic tank or holding tank, etc. 3. The Venting System This system consists of pipes which terminate in open air above the roof connected to the drainagePerforated Pipe - Holes Up or Down? JLC OnlineFeb 01, 2018Q When I use perforated pipe in a drainage system, should the holes go up or down?. A Steven Baczek, a residential architect from Reading, Mass., who specializes in designing durable, low-energy homes, responds I hear arguments for both methods, but it really depends on how the pipe functions in your drainage system.Before going any further, the pipe we are discussing here is heavy Pipe materialsProductsSEKISUI CHEMICAL CO.,LTDWater Supply SystemElectric Power Communication / GasSewage SystemMeasures For RainwaterWater Transmission Pipe from water source to areas 1. GRP Pipe Glass-reinforced Plastic Pipe Reinforced plastic pipe with extremely excellent earthquake resistance, flow characteristics, and strength. Distribution pipes for supplying water to respective houses and buildings 1. Earthquake-resistant High-perfomance PE Pipe Earthquake-resistant flexible polyethylene pipe with highly reliable EF fittings, which eliminates the fear of breakage or water leakage due to land subsidence. 2. Impact-resistant UnplasticiSee more on sekisuichemicalInstall a Drainage Pipe in 7 Steps DoItYourselfStep 1 Decide on The RouteStep 2 Decide on The PipeStep 3 Dig The TrenchStep 4 Line The TrenchStep 5 Install The PipesStep 6 Re-Fill The TrenchStep 7 Replace The SodThe route of the drainage pipe should be as direct as possible. This will be easier if you are using it to deter water from a specific area. Do not forget to account for the necessary downward slope.See more on doityourself
Must include:japanPeople also askWhat is drainage pipe installation?What is drainage pipe installation?Drainage pipe installation is a fairly labor intensive job unless you have the proper machinery. The most important aspect of any underground system is that it must travel from a high point to a low point with a steady slope. This will prevent any pooling from forming at low spots.Install a Drainage Pipe in 7 Steps DoItYourself
Plastics - Charlotte Pipe
Jan 07, 20212. INTRODUCTION. Plastics Technical Manual. Charlotte Pipe &has been relentless in our commitment to quality and service for more than a century. Through the yearsPlumbing Installation - Ask the BuilderIf a vent pipe becomes clogged or if vent pipes are improperly installed or sized wrong, the plumbing system may get the needed air by sucking it through the drain of one or more fixtures in a home. If you have ever heard a tub or sink drain gurgle or sputter when you flush a toilet, you are experiencing this siphon phenomenon first hand.Plumbing a Vent Using a Tee Fitting Home Guides SF GatePlumbing a Vent Using a Tee Fitting. Every waste drainage system needs a network of vent pipes to keep air flowing through the system. This prevents negative pressure inside the pipes, which can drainage pipe installation guide in japan
Principles, installations and maintenance
The cost of installation The cost of installing a new comprehensive field drainage system varies greatly according to the scale and intensity of the system. Based on 2015 prices, typical costs are around £2,500£3,500 per hectare for drainage with permeable backfill and around £1,500£2,500 per hectare for drainage without permeable drainage pipe installation guide in japanREINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE Section 701 Culvert Pipe, Entrance Pipe, Storm Sewer Pipe, and Equivalents Section 810 Pipe and Pipe Arches Sections 701 and 810 refer to several individual AASHTO specifications M170 Standard Specification for Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe (ASTM C76)STORMWATER DRAINAGE SPECIFICATIONEach pipe section is to be captured in the direction of its flow (Di-Graph) All lines must be snapped to a drainage pipe line features where applicable e.g. from the property connection pit to the drainage pipe. Some house connections connect to the network through a pit
Square Steel Installation Instructions
Square Steel Installation Instructions drainage pipe installation guide in japan SearchStormPRO&System - Vinidex Pty LtdVinidex Installation Guide. VIN331 StormPRO Installation Guide. PDF download. Quick Installation Guide - Slip Coupler for PRO pipes drainage pipe installation guide in japan StormPRO &polypropylene pipes are manufactured in accordance with AS/NZS 5065:2005 Polyethylene and polypropylene pipes and fittings for drainage and sewer applications. For installation guidance, please drainage pipe installation guide in japanSubsurface pipe drainage design and construction drainage pipe installation guide in japanWhen drainage pipes are installed in the impermeable layer such as clay, the permeable backfill should extend well above the impermeable layer. Collector pipe drains for mole drains should have screened gravel or scoria (12mm to 20mm diameter) to allow rapid water infiltration into the pipe.
Subsurface pipe drainage design and construction drainage pipe installation guide in japan
When drainage pipes are installed in the impermeable layer such as clay, the permeable backfill should extend well above the impermeable layer. Collector pipe drains for mole drains should have screened gravel or scoria (12mm to 20mm diameter) to allow rapid water infiltration into the pipe.Surface Water Drainage Systems Land Drainage PolypipeOur extensive range of surface water drainage systems include Ridgidrain and Ridgistorm-XL thermoplastic structured walled piping systems, which range from 100 - 3000mm in diameter, have a design life in excess of 60 and 100 years respectively. They are complemented by a complete range of gullies, land drainage solutions, filter drains, flow control devices and access and inspection chambers.Types of subsurface drainage systems Managing wet soils drainage pipe installation guide in japanCorrectly installed and maintained, these systems can last many years. Regular inspection of outfalls is necessary, as this is the weak link in all drainage systems. PVC pipes replaced clay pipes. Subsurface pipe drainage was referred to as 'tile drainage' in the past due to the use of short clay pipes.
Underground Drainage Systems
The design and layout of drainage and sewerage systems should comply with The Building Regulations and Water Authority Specification. Reference should also be made to the Sewers for Adoption manual. The following information is provided only as a general guide to good practice for the design of underground drainage systems.What is the Right Shower Drain Pipe Size?Jan 25, 2020As a result, most building codes will require this size drain pipe for every shower. Keep in mind that the local building codes and shower drain size code for your area may be slightly different. Some states and cities only require a 1.5-inch shower drain pipe, but you may still want to consider going with the two-inch size. For most standard drainage pipe installation guide in japandrainage pipe installation guide in japandrainage pipe installation procedurescorrugated drainage pipe installationperforated drainage pipe installationinstalling landscape drainage pipedrainage pipe typesretaining wall drainage pipe installationhow to lay drainage pipedrainage pipes undergroundSome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement. For more information, please see here.
drainage pipe installation guide in japan
drainage pipe installation procedurescorrugated drainage pipe installationperforated drainage pipe installationinstalling landscape drainage pipedrainage pipe typesretaining wall drainage pipe installationhow to lay drainage pipedrainage pipes undergroundSome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement. For more information, please see here.Installation - Gain City Best-Electric Pte LtdPVC DRAINAGE PIPES. Using a bigger size drainage pipe with insulation and inclined at the proper gradient will provide a smoother flow of water. This will reduce frequent clogging that will increase the risks of leakages and condensation which may damage your furnishings and flooring.drainage pipe installation guide in japandrainage pipe installation procedurescorrugated drainage pipe installationperforated drainage pipe installationinstalling landscape drainage pipedrainage pipe typesretaining wall drainage pipe installationhow to lay drainage pipedrainage pipes undergroundTESTING AND COMMISSIONING PROCEDURE FOR 4.5 Foul Water Drainage Installation Aboveground System 28 4.5.1 Water Test 28 4.5.2 Air Test 29 4.5.3 Functional Performance Test 30 4.6 Surface Water Drainage Installation Underground System 31 4.6.1 Water Test 31 4.6.2 Smoke Test 32 4.6.3 Air Test 33 4.6.4 Test for Manhole 34