hdpe pipe testing in austria Despriction

What is pressure testing of plastic pipes?What is pressure testing of plastic pipes?Pressure testing of plastic pipes, especially PE, is complicated because the pipe material creeps under pressure therefore the pressure reduces without any leakage so results can be misleading. A water loss method is therefore not practical. This is true for all PE pipes irrespective of the method used to install them.Testing Inspection

This is because the test qualifies HDPE pipe quality, meeting international standards used in referencing to the manufacturing process such as TIS 982, ISO 4427, BS EN 12201, AS/NZS 4130, DIN 8074/75 and so on. In this test, the pressure and temperature within the pipe (PDF) Comparison of Mechanical Properties Between PE80 and hdpe pipe testing in austriaIt was found that the Constant Tensile Test Load (CTL) test can be used for accelerated qualification or acceptance testing of polyethylene (PE) gas pipe. Immersing loaded test specimens in Igepal hdpe pipe testing in austria

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austriapressure testing HDPE pipes Archives SCS EngineersThe test pressure may vary from one pipe application to another. For example, the specified test pressure may be as high as 1.5 to 2 times the maximum service pressure in the pipe for leachate forcemain pipes; whereas for pipes used in landfill gas collection systems, where the pipes are under vacuum, the specified test pressure may be less.

A-2000 PVC Pipe for Storm Sewers and Drainage

drainage pipe materials. And A-2000 pipe, UNLIKE HDPE drainage pipe, has a minimum 46 pipe stiffness for ALL diameters. Compact A-2000 PVC profile is stable and not subject to local buckling like HDPE. Minimum Specified Pipe Stiffness (73°)* Better deflection control When compared to other thermoplastic pipes on the market, A-2000 stands up to hdpe pipe testing in austriaAGRU to extrude worlds largest HDPE pipe - AGRUWorldwide transport by tug boat . Because HDPE pipes are in the featherweight class compared to steel or concrete pipes, and with a density of only 0.95 kg / dm³, it is able to float in the water without assistance. This feature enables a unique form of delivery. Towing on-demand manufactured pipe strings over the ocean in the required dimensions to marine job sites is the most hdpe pipe testing in austriaASTM F2510 / F2510M - 17 Standard Specification for hdpe pipe testing in austria1.1 This specification covers the design, material, and minimum performance requirements of resilient connectors used for connections between reinforced concrete structures conforming to Specifications C478 and C913 to annular corrugated profile wall high density polyethylene (HDPE) drainage and sewer pipe conforming to AASHTO M252, M294, and M330 or Specifications F2306/F2306M,

ASTM F3390 - 20 Standard Specification for 3 through 24 in hdpe pipe testing in austria

F477 Specification for Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets) for Joining Plastic Pipe. F667 Specification for 3 through 24 in. Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe and Fittings. F2136 Test Method for Notched, Constant Ligament-Stress (NCLS) Test to Determine Slow-Crack-Growth Resistance of HDPE Resins or HDPE Corrugated PipeAccredited Material Testing Laboratory Watermain TestingHDPE Pipe Sample Testing. HDPE pipes need to be tested to meet the rigors of potential failures using a system of tensile and destructive testing that meets the standards of ISO 17025. HDPE Pipe Welding Procedure Quality Assurance.BURIED PIPE CALCULATIONS - adpfS c = Soil support combining factor E' b = Modulus of soil reaction of the pipe embedment, kN/m² E' n = Modulus of soil reaction of the native soil at pipe elevation, kN/m² The values of S c and E' b can be found from the table 5-4 and 5-5 given in AWWA M-45 manual. For finding S c, the value of E' n should be determined from the table 5-6. Pipe Stiffness, S S = E

Corrugated HDPE Pipe - Lane Enterprises. Inc.

Whether made from prime virgin resins or with recycled materials, Lanes HDPE pipe has the strength and service life needed for your project. Specify HD100 and HD100EC Pipe HD100 and HD100EC are todays top two standard corrugated polyethylene drainage pipes featuring a dual wall, a smooth interior and the century-long service life your hdpe pipe testing in austriaFailure and damage evaluation of HDPE pipesFigure 2. (a)Burst test of an undamaged HDPE pipe (b) Burst test of a notched HDPE pipe. work. We get the curves of t 3.2. Tensile test The used machine, Figure 3, works under the EN12201 code and can handle a force of 5 KN and a moving speed of 100 m / s. After we had completed all the tensile tests, we recorded the traction curves in the hdpe pipe testing in austriaFile Size 71KBPage Count 5

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austriaPeople also askWhat is HDPE pipe test?What is HDPE pipe test?HDPE Pipe Pneumatic testing specifies a pneumatic or hydrostatic tests should not be used unless you authorize the use of alternative tests. Test environment non-flammable and it should be non-toxic. Test pressure for any nonisolated. It must not exceed the maximum allowable hdpe pipe pressure testing.HDPE Pipe Testing Methods Zeep Construction

Guidelines For Post Installation Testing - 1 - Of BOSS hdpe pipe testing in austria

Technical Bulletin / Guidelines For Post Installation Testing of BOSS HDPE Pipe / 2018-08 - 1 - TECHNICAL BULLETIN B2.51.1 Guidelines For Post Installation Testing . Of BOSS HDPE Pipe. Flexible Pipe . Through deflection, BOSS High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) flexible pipe reacts to vertical soil loads when buried in a trench.HDPE PVC Pipe Testing Equipment - Hydrostatic Pressure hdpe pipe testing in austriaWholesale Trader of HDPE PVC Pipe Testing Equipment - Hydrostatic Pressure Testing Machine, Carbon Black Content Apparatus (CBC), Carbon Black Dispersion Test Apparatus and Impact Tester offered by Accumax Chemical Laboratories Consultancy, Rajkot, Gujarat.HDPE Conduit Pipe - Order Online - ProfessionalPlasticsHigh Density Polyethylene Pipe (HDPE) conduit pipe is used for a variety of infrastructure applications. Our product offering is commonly used in the Telecommunications, Power Utility, Electrical, CATV, Sewer, Potable Water and Oil/Gas collection industries. United Poly Systems manufactures HDPE pipe from 3/4" to 16" IPS and 4" to 16" DIPS for hdpe pipe testing in austria

HDPE Fittings Supplier and Distributor Acu-Tech Piping hdpe pipe testing in austria

HDPE fittings refers to a range of jointing fittings and adaptors that suit HDPE pipe. These fittings are made from PE100 HDPE material, and are designed for HDPE pipelines. The large range and types of PE fittings reflects the versatility and adaptability of HDPE pipe.HDPE Innerduct Telecom and Conduit - HDPE Pipe HDPE Geothermal Pressure Pipe Geothermal exchange is a clean energy method of heating and cooling commercial and residential buildings. HDPE pressure pipe is the ground heat exchanger, allowing heat transfer between the fluid in the pipe and the earth. Geothermal pipe is available in coils, or with a U-Bend (180 degree elbow) weld-HDPE Pipe - High Density Polyethylene Pipes Latest Price hdpe pipe testing in austriaFind here HDPE Pipe, High Density Polyethylene Pipes manufacturers, suppliers exporters in India. Get contact details address of companies manufacturing and supplying HDPE Pipe, High Density Polyethylene Pipes, Almax HDPE Pipes across India.

HDPE Pipe Duct Conduit Supplier

Cenfuse Geothermal SDR 15.5 HDPE Pipe Coils by Centennial Plastics HDPE 4710 ASTM D3035 Flexible high density polyethylene piping material for buried or submerged closed loop geothermal exchangers. SDR 15.5 PSI 138 Available in 20' and 40' hdpe pipe testing in austriaHDPE Pipe Specification Zeep ConstructionHDPE PIPE (PE100 PIPE) TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION and TEST METHODS FOR PIPING SYSTEMS. HDPE Pipes contains a variety of features in the structure and chemical properties due to the technical structure of HDPE pipe. Pe 100 Pipes has some features of its own raw materials, measurable creates some specifications after the pipe manufacturing process.HDPE Pipe Testing - Plumbers - Talk Local Blog Talk hdpe pipe testing in austriaHDPE Pipe Testing. All HDPE pipe manufacturers need to follow ASTM standards. ASTM, or the American Society for Testing and Materials, establishes and implements international standards for material quality and safety that are applied globally. ASTM also controls HDPE pipe testing by imposing various standards, such as dimensions, qualities hdpe pipe testing in austria

HDPE Pipe Testing - Plumbers - Talk Local Blog Talk hdpe pipe testing in austria

HDPE Pipe Testing. All HDPE pipe manufacturers need to follow ASTM standards. ASTM, or the American Society for Testing and Materials, establishes and implements international standards for material quality and safety that are applied globally. ASTM also controls HDPE pipe testing by imposing various standards, such as dimensions, qualities hdpe pipe testing in austriaHDPE Pipe Testing Methods Zeep ConstructionHDPE PIPE TESTING TESTING OF POLYETHYLENE PIPE ( High Density Polyethylene Pipe ) 1-IMPERMEABILITY / LEAK TESTING OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES. Purpose of leak testing is to know unacceptable problems in a piping system. If there have this kind of leak problems over the hdpe pipes, they manifest themselves may leak or rupture. Leak test realizable if hdpe pipe testing in austriaHDPE Pipe and Fittings Available from AGRU America, Inc.AGRUs HDPE pipe fittings are manufactured from the latest generation of materials approved by the Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI) and the NSF. Consequently, the fittings produced by AGRU meet a range of typical requirements utilized in projects including ASTM

HDPE Röchling Industrial EN

Not the right material? The Industrial division of the Röchling Group offers you a comprehensive range of thermoplastics and composites.HDPE Tapping Valve - Dutco TennantSizes suitable to d63 d315 pipe and outlet shall be 32/63mm. Top tapping integrated with stainless steel cutter and brass housing. Operating shut off. Accessories such as extended spindle, telescopic installationkit/sleeve tube, sealing washer etc. can be provided. Outlet with welded connection can be turned through 360 deg.HDPE pipe inspection - QC, Inspection Testing hdpe pipe testing in austriaJun 28, 2006HDPE pipe inspection QC1971 (Industrial) (OP) 14 Jun 06 09:53. hdpe pipe testing in austria Functional prototypes are a key step in product development â they give engineers a chance to test new ideas and designs while also revealing how the product will stand up to real-world use. And when it comes to functional prototypes, 3D printing is rewriting the rules of hdpe pipe testing in austria

HDPE,LDPE,LLDPE,PP,Plastic Granules Manufacturer,Iran hdpe pipe testing in austria

Iran Petrochemical Co is High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE/LLDPE), Polypropylene (PP) Manufacturer and Supplier. There are around 45 different types of plastic and each one has its own properties and uses, from commercial to residential. Iran Petrochemical Co Polymer is versatile that we use its Products in our daily life including HDPE, LLDPE, PP.HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE) PIPE PART 1 HDPE pipe holds pressure by developing stress in its walls, thus the pipe will increase slightly in diameter when under high pressures. The procedure for pressure testing HDPE main should take in account the expansion of the HDPE main. The recommended procedure is to a. Initially pressurize the main to the standard test pressure (150 psi) and hdpe pipe testing in austriaHdpe Fusion Welding Tools and EquipmentHdpe Fusion Equipment. We offer a full line of Ritmo Fusion Machines and Accessories. Electrofusion Processors, Clamps and Scraper Tools by Elofit. Socket Fusion Cold Rings, Depth Gauges and Chamfer Tools. Not all of our fusion equipment is available for purchase via our online store.

How to Weld HDPE Hunker

Welding HDPE, or high-density polyethylene, is a normal procedure for joining lengths of pipe together, whether it be for industrial or home use. One of the benefits of welding HDPE plastics in smaller applications such as you might find in home plumbing systems is that no weld filler rod is necessary.INCREASING HDPE BUTT FUSION PRODUCTIVITY BY Tests were performed on PE 4710 high density polyethylene pipe (HDPE) 18 inches in diameter with two different wall thicknesses, DR 7 (2.5-inch wall thickness) and DR 32.5 (0.55-inch wall thickness). The internal core temperature of the fusion during the cooling processdefined as when the two pipe Investigation on the thermal butt fusion performance of hdpe pipe testing in austriaJul 01, 2019The PENT test is required as a long-term performance test of HDPE resin in the Code Case N-755-3. As shown in Fig. 4(a), the notched tensile creep test specimen has identical configuration to the notched tensile test specimen. Fig. 4(b) depicts the configuration of PENT specimen, in which a razor notch was machined in three faces of the specimen.

Kenya Hdpe, Kenyan Hdpe Manufacturers - Made in Kenya

Made in Kenya Hdpe Directory - Offering Wholesale Kenyan Hdpe from Kenya Hdpe Manufacturers, Suppliers and Distributors at TradeKeyMATERIAL SPECIFICATION FOR HIGH DENSITY (hdpe) pipe fittings content 11.0 14.0 page 1.0 general 4 2.0 material 4 3.0 colour 4 4.0 classification and dimension of pipes 4 5.0 tolerances 5 6.0 length 5 7.0 appearance 5 8.0 testing requirements 6 9.0 marking of pipes 10 10.0 pipe fittings 10 hdpe pipe jointing 12 12.0 storage 13 Mandrel Testing of Plastic Pipe - MDOT WikiAug 11, 2020Mandrel Testing of Plastic Pipe. Plastic pipe, also referred to as flexible pipe, is manufactured using a variety of different materials. Currently the only materials used to manufacture plastic pipe that are acceptable for use on department projects for storm sewer and culverts is polyethylene (CPE), polyvinyl chloride (CPV) and polypropylene (PPP).

PE Pipe Joining Procedures - Engineered Pipe Group

Most pipe manufacturers have detailed parameters and procedures to follow. The majority of them helped develop and have approved the PPI Technical Report TR-33 for the generic butt fusion joining procedure for PE pipe (15) and ASTM F 2620. Optional Bead Removal In some pipe systems, engineers may elect to remove the inner or outer bead of the hdpe pipe testing in austriaPSILab - Polymer Plastic Pipe Testing Laboratory.Polymer Plastic Pipe Testing PSILab is an advanced product testing laboratory that specializes in plastic pipe and pipe materials, as well as other polymeric and composite products. Our mission is to deliver solutions when you need certainty .Perforated HDPE Pipes Perforated Polyethylene PipesThe 100 perforated pipe, perforated pipe, perforated corrugated pipe and PVC pipe including 3-Type in the form of drainage pipes produced according to the operation to be performed in a team and raw materials to be used and the tests are done to customers by plastic pipe manufacturers pipe is specified. Perforated HDPE pipes at certain intervals on the outer surface of the depending on hdpe pipe testing in austria

Pipe - WL Plastics

HDPE piping is sometimes installed or operated in environments that can be hazardous. Take safety precautions to protect against death, injury, property damage and pipe damage. Static Electric Discharge HDPE pipe does not conduct electricity. In dry, low humidity conditions, static electric charges can develop on the surface of exposed HDPE pipe.Pipe Manufacturer in Ahmedabad HDPEProduct Details. Our organization is counted one of the trusted names in the market in offering a wide range HDPE PIPE ISI IS4984-1995. Highly skilled professionals manufacture these pipes in compliance with the set industry norms and parameters using quality approved materials.Pipe Specs nbsp; - Petersen ProductsWarning All pipe plugs must be blocked or anchored adequately against a force equal to the head pressure times the cross-sectional area of the pipe. Debris or protrusions in the pipeline can damage a seal or rupture inflatable plugs. NEVER use an inflatable plug when its failure could cause injury or catastrophic damage or as the only means of protection for personnel working downstream.

Pipe Testing - Applied Technical Services

Pipe Testing One of ATS most requested services is pipe testing and inspections. With such a variety of tests that can be performed on pipes, we offer numerous applications including nondestructive testing, mechanical testing, environmental testing, failure analysis and weld certification.Pipe hydrostatic pressure testing Southern's Water hdpe pipe testing in austriaThe material the pipe is made from is also very important, whether its a steel, PVC or polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. Also the way in which it is constructed changes what needs to be tested for,and the pipes size and pressure rating also determine what needs to be tested. Southerns Water Crew Testing a 450mm HDPE Polyethylene Pipe Fittings Polypropylene SecorAdaptable for all piping, these fittings are used on HDPE pipe to change direction, insert a lateral or tee, or simply to cap off an end of a line. View. Transition and Supplies. Our Transition fittings, in carbon steel, and 306 or 316 stainless steel, are available in weld x weld, threaded, grooved or flanged-end configurations. hdpe pipe testing in austria

Polyethylene Pipe Application fire fighting HDPE Pipe

Fire Fighting Pars Ethylene Kish Product Application (PE Pipe) Plastic piping offers numerous benefits for many fire fighting applications. They are corrosion-free, have excellent chemical resistance and have superior abrasion-resistant qualities compared with less advanced materials. HDPE pipe has been used extensively in both the mining and chemical industry.Pressure Test Method For PE pipe - All Kinds of HDPE Pipe hdpe pipe testing in austriaThe pressure test of PE Pipe is a very important link, which is directly related to the use of the product. Therefore, we need to strictly control the PE pipe when testing it. Next, we will introduce some related methods. After the air in the PE pipe to be tested is excluded, the pressure is increased to the required pressure value at a steady boosting speed, the pressure gauge should be hdpe pipe testing in austriaProducts JM EagleJM Eagle offers the most comprehensive line of plastic pipe. Whether its our Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) or Polyethylene (PE) pipes, JM Eagle products are the very best for their applications. In addition to meeting the required specifications, our pipes go through extensive testing to ensure they can maintain their quality and performance over time.

Rainson Pipe Industries HDPE Pipe Fitting Manufacturers in hdpe pipe testing in austria

Established in the year 2014, we RAINSON PIPE INDUSTRIES RAINBOW POLYVALVE PVT. LTD. GROUP OF COMPANY, are reputed Manufacturerand Supplier of qualitative assortment of HDPE Pipe And Fittings, PP Pipe And Fittings, Compression Fittings, PP And HDPE Ball Valves, PPH Pipe And Fittings, PVDF Pipe And Fittings and PPR Pipe And Fittings.Under the leadership of our director Mr. Rebuilding Paradise with HDPE Pipe WWDJan 22, 2021The Paradise Irrigation Department is replacing all water service lines using high-density polyethylene (HDPE) PE 4710 pipe in diameters of 1 to 2 inches. The pipe, PolyFlex CTS potable water service tubing from Advanced Drainage Systems Inc. (ADS), is resistant to rot and corrosion, can be easily installed and is consistent with industry hdpe pipe testing in austriaSAMPLE SPECIFICATION FOR HIGH DENSITY B. HDPE Pipe 1. Pipe shall be made of HDPE material with a minimum material designation code and minimum cell classification as noted in 2.01.A. The HDPE pipe shall be manufactured in a plant approved by Factory Mutual. The facility shall have the necessary testing equipment to verify

Technical Note 802 Leak Testing of Polyethylene Pipe

Performance Pipe PE pressure piping is 140°F (60°C). Test Duration When testing at pressures above system design pressure up to 150% of the system design pressure, the maximum test duration is eight (8) hours including time to pressurize, time for initial expansion, time at test pressure, and time to depressurize the test section.Testing Equipment HDPE Pipe, UPVC Pipes by AiroPower hdpe pipe testing in austriaO.D. pipe. Solid Steel Rust Proof Design. Hot / Cold Water Bath. For maintaining specified temperature for longer time with circulation system temperature controlled by digital controller. Inside chamber SS 304. Special insulation from all the side top. Hydro statistic pressure test of HDPE, R-PVC, C-PVC, MDPE lateral pipes.WL Plastics PE4710 Specification - HDPE Pipe B. Pipe Material PE 4710 pipe is produced from the highest rated HDPE pipe materials. This is a long lasting, fusible pipe. PE4710 pipe is a pressure rated product and listed under the Plastics Pipe Institutes (PPI) Technical Report Four (TR-4 @plasticpipe > PPI Publications > Technical Reports).

WL Plastics PE4710 Specification - HDPE Pipe Manufacturer

B. Pipe Material PE 4710 pipe is produced from the highest rated HDPE pipe materials. This is a long lasting, fusible pipe. PE4710 pipe is a pressure rated product and listed under the Plastics Pipe Institutes (PPI) Technical Report Four (TR-4 @plasticpipe > PPI Publications > Technical Reports).Wavin HDPE Drainage Iplex AustraliaWavin HDPE Drainage. Iplexs Wavin HDPE Drainage System is a complete soil, waste and vent system of pipes and fittings specifically for use in above-ground drainage applications, removing domestic waste water and rainwater from residential and commercial properties.Weld Testing of HDPE Welds Acu-Tech Piping SystemsISO 11414 Plastics pipes and fittings Preparation of polyethylene (PE) pipe/pipe or pipe/fitting test piece assemblies by butt fusion. ISO 13953 Polyethylene (PE) pipes and fittings Determination of the tensile strength and failure mode of test pieces from a butt-fused joint.

air test HDPE - Pipelines, Piping and Fluid Mechanics hdpe pipe testing in austria

Mar 05, 2012The convention in that standard is that when you are talking about testing a specific material, the code will list exclusions specific to that material within the section. There is no limitation within the section on air testing plastic pipe so you refer back to the basic testing section (841.3) and in section 841.3.1(c) it says Quote:geothermal pipe for sale Centennial 3/4" x 410' Geothermal Pipe Coil Bullet U-Bend Earthloop Test-Caps. hdpe pipe testing in austria NEW HDPE PIPE FUSION WELDER MACHINE GEOTHERMAL SOCKETS 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 2" Brand New. $550.00. or Best Offer +$35.00 shipping. Watch; NEW HDPE PIPE FUSION WELDER MACHINE GEOTHERMAL METRIC SOCKETS 20 25 32 40 50 63.hdpe pipe bent strap test in hondurasBend Testing - TWIThe bend test uses a coupon that is bent in three point bending to a specified angle. The outside of the bend is extensively plastically deformed so that any. Toggle navigation. hdpe pipe testing in austria HDPE Pipe for fire protection (For municipal fire protection) HDPE pipes for water;

hdpe pipe testing in austria

hdpe pipe distributorhdpe pipe specificationshdpe pipe fittingsflexible hdpe pipewhere to buy hdpe pipehdpe dr11 pipe specificationshdpe pipe fittings catalogSome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement. For more information, please see here.hdpe pipe testing in austriahdpe pipe distributorhdpe pipe specificationshdpe pipe fittingsflexible hdpe pipewhere to buy hdpe pipehdpe dr11 pipe specificationshdpe pipe fittings catalogSome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement. For more information, please see here.HDPE Pipe - A Complete Guide Provident ProcurementVisual Inspections Looking for cracks, uneven surfaces or indentations Measurements of the HDPE pipe thickness and cross-checking the numbers to the design specifications. Mechanical Inspection. Resistance tests performed to determine impact strength. Test of tensile strength to test the reaction of the pipes to tension forces.hdpe pipe testing in austriahdpe pipe distributorhdpe pipe specificationshdpe pipe fittingsflexible hdpe pipewhere to buy hdpe pipehdpe dr11 pipe specificationshdpe pipe fittings catalogSome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement. For more information, please see here.HDPE piping systems - AGRUPE 100-RC and PE 100-RC. PE piping systems made of polyethylene (PE 100 and PE 100-RC) by AGRU are characterized by high toughness and very good chemical resistance, and can be used from -40 °C to +60 °C. Other characteristics of AGRU products made

hdpe pipes Companies and Suppliers serving Jamaica

HDPE Pipe, known as HDPE 100 Pipe (High Density Polyethylene Pipe) and HDPE 80 Pipe used in many projects for potable water, such hdpe pipe testing in austria REQUEST QUOTE Zeep Construction CO LTD was founded in 2010 and developed since its inception at the same time expanding its worldwide customer base continues to provide the best services to many countries today hdpe pipe testing in austriahdpe pipes Companies and Suppliers serving KenyaHDPE Pipe, known as HDPE 100 Pipe (High Density Polyethylene Pipe) and HDPE 80 Pipe used in many projects for potable water, such hdpe pipe testing in austria REQUEST QUOTE Zeep Construction CO LTD was founded in 2010 and developed since its inception at the same time expanding its worldwide customer base continues to provide the best services to many countries today hdpe pipe testing in austriapressure testing HDPE pipes Archives SCS EngineersThe test pressure may vary from one pipe application to another. For example, the specified test pressure may be as high as 1.5 to 2 times the maximum service pressure in the pipe for leachate forcemain pipes; whereas for pipes used in landfill gas collection systems, where the pipes are under vacuum, the specified test pressure may be less.