manning s n plastic pipe traders Despriction

"n" and "k" values for 6" PVC - Storm/Flood engineering manning s n plastic pipe traders

Aug 28, 2001I don't know of a reference for plastic pipe "n" values, but the lower limit for n is 0.009 (glass tubing). When I worked with the Corps of Engineers, we replaced CMP culverts with 72" PVC pipe and used an n of 0.011. For a mitred entrance with no headwall, the entrance loss coefficient is "n" and "k" values for 6" PVC - Storm/Flood engineering manning s n plastic pipe tradersAug 28, 2001I don't know of a reference for plastic pipe "n" values, but the lower limit for n is 0.009 (glass tubing). When I worked with the Corps of Engineers, we replaced CMP culverts with 72" PVC pipe and used an n of 0.011. For a mitred entrance with no headwall, the entrance loss coefficient is 3-0 HYDRAULICSWithin the pipe industry, there is a wide range of Mannings n values, or roughness coefficients, for various types of pipe. Several items should be considered prior to selecting an n value for a given pipe material when designing any gravity flow system. 1. Mannings n values developed for any given pipe

750.4 Storm Sewers - Engineering_Policy_Guide

Jun 10, 2014n = Mannings roughness coefficient K Q = constant, 0.46 D = conduit diameter, ft 750.4.4.5 Junction Losses. A pipe junction is the connection of a lateral pipe to a larger trunk pipe without the use of a manhole structure. The following form of the momentum equation may be used to determine junction losses:A-2000 PVC Pipe for Storm Sewers and DrainageA-2000 PVC Pipe, with its inner wall formed over a polished mandrel, has the lowest wall friction factor (Mannings n = .009) of any thermoplastic pipe available and offers real advantages compared to RCP (n = .012- .013). This added efficiency means A-2000 can be designed as a smaller and lessADS SpecificationsADS N-12&WT IB PIPE SPECIFICATION Scope This specification describes 4- through 60-inch (100 to 1500 mm) ADS N-12 WT IB pipe for use in gravity flow applications. Pipe Requirements N-12 WT IB pipe shall have a smooth interior and annular exterior corrugations. 12- through 60-inch (300 to 1500 mm) shall meet AASHTO M294, Type S or ASTM F2306.

Applicability of the Colebrook-White Formula to

White equation and Manning's n calculated using the known depth and discharge) and further demonstrates Cast-iron Pipe the variation of the Manning coefficient compared to (Slope = 0.005) X X 1 21 41 60 Discharge I 0 (I/min) 100 120 Figure 2-Variation of Manning's n with discharge. coefficient for small bore partially filled pipeflow, andCHAPTER 3 HYDRAULICS OF CULVERTSn = Surface roughness of the pipe wall, usually expressed in terms of Mannings n So = Slope of the culvert pipe TW = Tailwater depth at culvert outlet Outlet Control. The control section is located at or near the culvert outlet and for any given shape and size of culvert, the discharge is dependent on all of the manning s n plastic pipe tradersCORRAPOL Sheet Fixings Building Plastics OnlineCorrapol Clear 60mm Fixings (Pack Of 10) Corrapol Clear 60mm Fixings (Pack of 50) Corrapol Foam Eaves Filler High Profile 900mm each; Corrapol Rigid Rock n Lock Side Flashing 2m Mill

Calculadora gratis en línea de la fórmula de Manning para manning s n plastic pipe traders

Translate this pageCalculadora gratis en línea de la fórmula de Manning para gasto en tuberías >> Dejad vuestros miedos en la puerta; el amor se habla aquí. Cálculo por Manning de caudal y velocidad de gasto en tuberías a pendiente y sección dadoCircular Pipe Mannings n PlainwaterJan 22, 2021Mannings n Values for Closed Conduits; Description Mannings n Range; Concrete pipe 0.011 0.013 Corrugated metal pipe or pipe-arch Corrugated Metal Pipes and Boxes, Annular or Helical Pipe (Mannings n varies with barrel size) 68 by 13 mm (2 x ½ in.) corrugations 0.022 0.027 150 by 25 mm (6 x 1 in.) corrugations 0.022 manning s n plastic pipe tradersCircular culvert software design, analysis calculation manning s n plastic pipe tradersn = Manning coefficient. n is a function of the culvert material, such as plastic, concrete, brick, etc. Values for n can be found in the table below of Manning's n coefficients. P = Wetted perimeter of culvert . P is the contact length (in the cross-section) between the water and the culvert. Q = Discharge or flow rate through culvert .

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Mannings n of 0.012 Equal to Concrete Pipe ULTRA FLO has over 25 years of proven performance on municipal, transportation, residential development, shopping center and airport storm sewer and stormwater detention projects. ULTRA FLOs rapid acceptance is based on its Mannings n of 0.012, structural strength and faster manning s n plastic pipe tradersCorrugated Steel Culverts National Corrugated Steel Pipe manning s n plastic pipe tradersCorrugated steel pipe plate provides smooth alternatives and fabricated fittings for superior hydraulics. Spiral rib pipe and fully lined CSP have the lowest Manning n-values of any storm sewer material. Small diameter helical CSP also has very low roughness coefficients as proven through independent testing.Cured In Place Pipe CIPP Pipe LiningGet Information on CIPP from Local Trenchless Contractors. Cured In Place Pipe Technology - Whether you are having issues with a small 2 inch pipe, or a large 56 inch municipal pipe, CIPP could very well be an economical and permanent solution to your problem. The only pipes that would not qualify as a good candidate for CIPP would be if there are severe bellies in the existing line or several manning s n plastic pipe traders

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As one of the most professional antique garden sculpture corten steel water feature manufacturers and suppliers, we're featured by quality products and competitive price. Please rest assured to wholesale customized antique garden sculpture corten steel water feature made DETERMINATION OF ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENTS FOR and selection of n values. Manning Equation Most commonly, Manning's roughness coefficient, n, is used to describe the relative roughness of a channel or overbank areas, and it appears in the general Manning equation for open channel flow in the following form (Barnes, 1967) y = where V is the mean velocity of flow, in feet per second;Darcy Friction Factor - Oregon State UniversityThe Moody diagram is a family of curves that relate the friction factor, f, to Reynolds number, Re, and the relative roughness of a pipe, e /D. Alternatively, the Darcy friction factor is related to Manning's n through the following relationship Where n = Manning friction factor

Design Data 10 - Concrete Pipe

Values of Manning's n Table 1 Recommended Values of Mannings n 1 American Concrete Pipe Associations Concrete Pipe Design Manual - 2000 2 Tullis and Barfuss Study - 1989 3 CPPA Specifications 4 Uni-Bells Handbook of PVC Pipe - 2001 5 University of Drainage Calculator by Pipe Size « Prinsco, IncThese calculations are based on the Mannings Roughness ASAE EP 260.3 Plastic Tubing Drainage Chart and should be used for estimating purposes only. Consult a Water Table Management Professional for design criteria information manning s n plastic pipe traders A particular pipe size on a given grade will only carry a certain amount of water. The steeper the grade of the manning s n plastic pipe tradersEOSD, CV,XV,ZV ValvesJul 03, 2012Nylon 12 v's Nylon 6.6Mar 10, 2012NX6 - Visible in ViewJun 08, 20106kV vs 6.6kVJan 04, 2004See more resultsManning's Formula for Gravity Flow - Engineering ToolBoxManning's equation can be used to calculate cross-sectional average velocity flow in open channels. v = (k n / n) R h 2/3 S 1/2 (1) where. v = cross-sectional mean velocity (ft/s, m/s) k n = 1.486 for English units and k n = 1.0 for SI units

Engineering Mannings Technical Equation Data

R Mannings Equation Table of N Values Mannings Equation Used for open channel flow (natural or man-made). V= K R 2 3 S e 1 2 or Q=K AR 2 3 S e 1 2 N N Where V= Average velocity of pipe Equivalent Flow Capacity of Various Pipe MaterialsTable 1 Values of Manning's n Pipe Material Storm Sewer - 0.012 Sanitary Sewer - 0.012-0.013 Storm Sewer - 0.012-0.024 Storm Sewer - 0.029-0.034 Storm Sewer - 0.016-0.018 0.010 0.009-0.015 0.022-0.028 0.012-0.013 Concrete Pipe Corrugated HDPE (lined) Corrugated Metal Pipe Spiral Rib Metal Pipe Laboratory Values ACPA Recommended Design Values manning s n plastic pipe tradersEvaluation of Polypropylene Drainage PipeThe stiffness of the pipe, was 46 psi at 5 percent deflection. Mannings n value was 0.012. Pipe joints were rated at 15 psi internal pressure. Extensive product data and design guidelines are available from ADS.2-8 Figure 2 is a map showing the test sites. Average daily traffic counts, obtained from the

Free Online Manning Pipe Flow Calculator - HawsEDC

Manning Formula Uniform Pipe Flow at Given Slope and Depth. Can you help me improve translations, program, or host these calculators? Check out our spreadsheet version of this calculator Download Spreadsheet Open Google Sheets version View All Spreadsheets. Set units manning s n plastic pipe tradersGravity Sewer Minimum Design Criterian = coefficient of roughness (Manning), n = 0.013 S = slope of energy grade line, ft/ft R H = hydraulic radius, ft = cross-sectional area of flow (ft2) or diameter (in.) wetted perimeter 48 3. Minimize Solids Deposition The pipe diameter and slope shall be selected to obtain the greatest practical velocities to minimize settling problems.HANCORTable 3-1 and 3-2 require knowledge of the Mannings n value. Those values for various Hancor products are provided in the Tables. However, these tables can also be used for other materials if the specific Mannings n is known. The Mannings n is a critical value in the conveyance concept.

HDPE Hydraulic Design Flow Design for Polyethylene Pipe manning s n plastic pipe traders

where Q = the flow quantity, n = Manning roughness coefficient, A = the area of the pipe, rH = hydraulic radius, S = the slope of the energy line, which is parallel to the water surface and pipe invert if the flow is uniform. The n value ranges between 0.012 and 0.015 (on average about 0.013) for clay or concrete pipes, and is approximately 0 manning s n plastic pipe tradersHYDRAULICS FOR GRAVITY SEWER PIPE A FEW THINGS TO manning s n plastic pipe tradersMany know that Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) has a Mannings n value of 0.009, but they conservatively use 0.012/0.013 based on Reinforced Concrete Pipes historical values after adjusting for sliming of the pipe wall and joints. Since PVC is highly resistant to sliming, this is considered as an overly conservative number, but we know it will work.Hazen-Williams Coefficients Table Engineers Edge www manning s n plastic pipe tradersfluid flow. Hazen-Williams Coefficients Table . Fluids Flow Engineering Hydraulic Pneumatic Design Engineering,. Hazen-Williams Coefficients Table. The HazenWilliams equation has the advantage that the coefficient C is not a function of the Reynolds number , but it has the disadvantage that it is only valid for water . Also, it does not account for the temperature or viscosity of the water.

Hazen-Williams Coefficients Table Engineers Edge www manning s n plastic pipe traders

fluid flow. Hazen-Williams Coefficients Table . Fluids Flow Engineering Hydraulic Pneumatic Design Engineering,. Hazen-Williams Coefficients Table. The HazenWilliams equation has the advantage that the coefficient C is not a function of the Reynolds number , but it has the disadvantage that it is only valid for water . Also, it does not account for the temperature or viscosity of the water.High Density Polyethylene Pipe InformationHigh Density Polyethylene Pipe Information. Advisory Groups . Florida Pipe Advisory Group Note By selecting the above link you will be redirected to the State Drainage Office. FDOT Documentation . Date. Title. Author. File Size. 10-16-2008. Florida Method of Test for Determining Slow Crack Growth Resistance of HDPE Corrugated Pipes (FM 5-572)Home NRCS3-WI-42r EFH Notice 210-WI-125 October 2011 Typical Values for Mannings n . Type and Description of Channel1 n Values Min. Design Max. Channels, Lined

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Web viewPVC_Plastic Corrugated_PE Smooth_HDPE HY8 Federal Highway Administration's Culvert Analysis Program User Guide US Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), HEC-RAS, River Analysis System Hydraulic Reference Manual, March 2008 Manning's "n" Values Culvert Entrance Type Note This equation applies for Q/(AD^0.5)<= ~3.5Hydraulic Design Manual Flow in ConduitsSmooth-lined metal pipe. 0.012. Smooth lined plastic pipe. 0.012. Corrugated metal pipe. 0.015-0.027. Structural plate pipe. 0.027-0.036. Long span structural plate. 0.031 manning s n plastic pipe traders The friction slope represents the slope of the energy grade line and is based upon Manning's Equation, rearranged as follows Anchor #CVGKOQVW manning s n plastic pipe tradersHydraulic Design Manual Flow in ConduitsSmooth-lined metal pipe. 0.012. Smooth lined plastic pipe. 0.012. Corrugated metal pipe. 0.015-0.027. Structural plate pipe. 0.027-0.036. Long span structural plate. 0.031 manning s n plastic pipe traders The friction slope represents the slope of the energy grade line and is based upon Manning's Equation, rearranged as follows Anchor #CVGKOQVW manning s n plastic pipe traders

Hydraulic Polyethylene Pipe Hydraulics

of the Mannings equation shown in Equation 1 or 1(a) with metric units. Equation 1 Q = 1.486 AR2/3 S1/2 n Where Q = pipe capacity, cfs n = Mannings n (unitless), a term used to describe material roughness A = cross-sectional flow area of the pipe (ft2) R = hydraulic radius (ft), 1/4 the diameter for full-flowing pipe conditionsIB 1017 Hydraulic Capacity of Precast manning s n plastic pipe traders - Rinker Pipesurface roughness and slope. Commonly used n value for precast concrete products is 0.012. When determining the various values used in the Manning Formula, the Engineer must account for the effect of the corner haunches on the cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter. The American Concrete Pipe Association (ACPA) has a number of Design Data's thatIB 4001 Mannings n Value Research - Rinker PipeTitle Microsoft Word - IB 4001 Mannings n Value Research.doc Author SCMcKeen Created Date 12/28/2005 3:43:44 PM

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A pioneer in cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) technology, we have installed over 25,000 miles of CIPP worldwide. The Insituform &CIPP process is suited for wastewater pipeline repair and can be used to rehabilitate sanitary sewers, storm sewers and force mains. Insituform &CIPP, or Insitupipe ®, is a jointless pipe-within-a-pipe with the capability to rehabilitate pipelines ranging in diameter manning s n plastic pipe tradersLECTURE 1 Review of pipe flow Darcy-Weisbach, 1.4.3. Mannings Equation N i. HS -[ - B = 1 in SI System B = 1.49 in British System Example 1.2 Calculate the friction head loss by using a) Hazen Willimas b) Manning s equation and c) Darcy-Weisbach equation for a commercial steel pipe (new) with 1.4 m diameter and a flowrate of 3.3 m3/s Life Cycle Cost Hobas Pipe USATwo products are specified Product A with a 50 year life, a 100 inch-gallon leakage rate and a Mannings n of 0.013 and Product B with a 100 year life, leak-free and a Mannings n of 0.009. Inflation is assumed at 3% and the cost of money is taken at 8%. Assumed O,M,RR differences between products A B:

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T-SHIRT - Find RFQ detail Pipe Fittings, Plumbing Fittings from MalaysiaManning Equation - The Details Behind this Highly manning s n plastic pipe tradersThe Manning equation is a widely used and very versatile formula in water resources. It can be used to compute the flow in an open channel, compute the friction losses in a channel, derive the capacity of a pipe, check the performance of an area-velocity flow meter, and has many more applications.How can one equation do so much? In this post, I provide an introduction to the Mannings manning s n plastic pipe tradersManning Formula for Determining Open Channel FlowsThe Manning formula can be used to calculate the flow of water in open non-full channels and pipes without the need for a flume, weir, or other structure. While not a accurate as flows calculated with those structures, the Manning formula is accurate enough for some applications.

Manning n values, Manning roughness coefficient

References Footnotes refer to Manning n table above. All other Manning n values (roughness coefficients) were obtained from the references listed in our Discussion and References page.. a Barfuss, Steven and J. Paul Tullis. Friction factor test on high density polyethylene pipe.Manning's "n" For PVC Gravity Sewer Pipe , page1.Manning's Roughness Coefficient - CivilWeb SpreadsheetsManning's Roughness Coefficient is a dimensionless coefficient describing the internal roughness of a drainage pipe. This value must be carefully chosen to suit the design conditions. It is dependent on mostly the same issues as the Colebrook-White roughness coefficient, primarily the pipe material and condition. Care must be taken that a manning s n plastic pipe traders

Mannings N Roughness Coefficients - Open Channel -

The following Mannings n Roughness Coefficient table is from the United States Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Hydraulic Engineering website. Table B.2. Manning's Roughness Coefficients for Various Boundaries. Rigid Boundary Channels. Manning's n. Very smooth concrete and planed timber.Mannings Value for Slotted PVC Pipe - Civil/Environmental manning s n plastic pipe tradersMay 08, 2006Many suggest using 0.011 because Camp (circa 1950) found that n-values vary with depth. According to his findings the max n/n0 = 1.2. Which 0.009 * 1.2 = 0.011. Whether Camp's study is applicable to smooth pipes is conjectural. I tend to use n = 0.011. For perf. or slotted pipe I might be temped to use n=0.012.Mannings n Roughness Coefficients - Closed Conduits manning s n plastic pipe tradersTable B.3. Manning's n Values for Closed Conduits. Description. Manning's n Range. Concrete pipe. 0.0110.013. Corrugated metal pipe or pipe-arch Corrugated Metal Pipes and Boxes, Annular or Helical Pipe (Manning's n varies with barrel size)

Mannings roughness coefficient NRCS

Selecting Manning's Roughness Coefficients for Natural Channels Flood Plains (.pdf version, USGS water supply paper 2339, made into pdf by FHWA) Flow of Water in Channels Protected by Vegetative Linings (ARS, pdf, 5.7 Mb) Friction Factors for Vegetated Waterways of Small Slope (ARS, pdf, 5.1 Mb) Channel n-value guide (Faskin)(pdf, 6.4 Mb)PVC GASKETED SEWER PIPING SYSTEMSMain line sewers will be PVC SDR35 sewer pipe and shall be in compliance with ASTM D3034 or ASTM F679 and third party certified to CSA B182.2. Sewer laterals will be PVC SDR28 sewer pipe and shall be third party certified by CSA as above. Joints Sealing gaskets must meet the requirements of ASTM D3034 or ASTM F679, CSA B182.2. In addition, the pipePipe Roughness Coefficients Table Charts Hazen-Williams manning s n plastic pipe tradersNote Pipes that have absolute roughness equal to or less than 0.000005 feet are considered to exhibit smooth pipe characteristics. Relative roughness and friction factors for new, clean pipes for flow of 60°F (15.6°C) water (Hydraulic Institute Engineering Data Book, Reference 5) (1 meter 39.37 in = 3.28 ft).

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Named for its excellent Mannings n rating of 0.012, N-12 pipe was designed specifically for storm sewers, highways, airports, and other engineered construction. Through extensive field and university testing, manning s n plastic pipe traders Standard Specification for Joints for Drain and Sewer Plastic Pipe SDR 35 Pipe Fittings McMaster-CarrPipe is PVC, which has good corrosion resistance. Connect to unthreaded female socket-connect fittings using a PVC primer and cement (also known as solvent weld). Pipe meets ASTM D2729 specifications and testing requirements for material quality. Warning Never use plastic pipe fittings and pipe with compressed air or gas.SECTION 2 - SANITARY SEWER DESIGN CRITERIAn = Manning's Pipe Roughness Coefficient = 0.013 A Mannings Coefficient of 0.013 shall be used for all design calculations, regardless of pipe type and diameter. The maximum design flow depth at peak flow shall not exceed 83% of the internal pipe diameter (i.e. d/D = 0.83, ratio flow depth to internal pipe

SECTION 3 - Design Criteria for Sewer System Facilities

Pipe Diameter Mannings Roughness Coefficient D/d Max. 8 to 12 0.013 0.50 15 or greater 0.013 0.75 Required velocities at design flow (Q) for sewer pipelines shall be minimum 2 fps and maximum 10 fps. The maximum velocity at design flow allowed in any sewer pipeline is 10 fps.SIZING OPEN CHANNELS FOR STORMWATER RUNOFFThe program uses Mannings formula (for metric):- Q = A/n * R^0.66 * S^0.5 To use imperial units, use the converter below. Convert both the input and the answers.Sheets And Pipes Manufacturer from JaipurSheets And Pipes We are offering a wide range in HDPE Coil Pipe, DWC Pipe, Ductile Iron Pipe, GI Square Pipe, GI Bend Medium, GI Elbow, GI End Cap, CR Sheet, GP Sheet, GC Sheet, Reflective Tape, Solar Road Stud, GP Coil, KSB Submersible Pump, GI Barbed Wire, Mild Steel Welded Mesh, Overhead Gantry Sign Board, Submersible Flat Cable and many more.

Solved Please Give As Much Detail As Possible And Show

Question Please Give As Much Detail As Possible And Show Work Question 1 For A 30-inch Concrete Stormwater Pipe (n = 0.016), Laid On A Slope Of 0.75%, A Flow Depth Of 20-inches, What Is The Flow Rate? A. 6.9 Cfs B. 12.9 Cfs C. 22.6 Cfs D. 37.2 Cfs Question 2 For A 42-inch Concrete Stormwater Pipe (n = 0.014), Laid On A Slope Of 0.025%, Carrying A Flow Rate Of manning s n plastic pipe tradersTable 1. Roughness coefficients, n, for the Manning manning s n plastic pipe tradersTable 1. Roughness coefficients, n, for the Manning equation. Type and Description of Channel n values Channels, Lined Asphalt 0.015 Concrete, smooth 0.012-0.018 Concrete, rough 0.017-0.030 Metal, smooth 0.011-0.015 Metal, corrugated 0.021-0.026 Plastic 0.012-0.014 Wood 0.011-0.015 Channels, Vegetated (Dense, uniform stands of greenTypes And Sizes Of PVC Pipe HunkerTwo main types of PVC pipe exist schedule 40 and schedule 80. The difference lies in the thickness of the pipe wall. Schedule 40 PVC pipes have thinner walls than their schedule 80 counterparts. If you come across a different schedule number than the typical 40 or 80, know that the higher the number, the thicker the pipe wall.

Under The Second Image, With The "Manning Equation manning s n plastic pipe traders

Under the second image, with the "Manning Equation" contains all the equations needed to do this program. Under the "Requirements," is what is required to be done. Under the "Programming Tasks" is the instructions on what to do. Under the figure 4, the black What Is the Manning Formula? (with picture)Jan 01, 2021Manning's equation does not relate to closed pipe or pressurized systems, simply for water streams or channels open to the atmosphere. A critical element in the Manning formula is the value for wall roughness, known as the Gauckler-Manning coefficient. This number is based on a complex set of factors.What is the recommended Manning s n value for PVC pipe manning s n plastic pipe tradersApr 26, 2017The appropriate conservative n value for minimum slope design of PVC sewer pipe is 0.009, as correctly justified by actual test data. The justification of this value is briefly described below. For many years it has been popular and convenient to use a single n value for all pipe materials.

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Table 1. Roughness coefficients, n, for the Manning equation. Type and Description of Channel n Table 1. Roughness coefficients, n, for the Manning equation. Type and Descriptionmanning's n plastic pipe tradersmanning's n for pvc pipemanning's n for concrete pipemanning's n for hdpe pipeSome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement. For more information, please see here.manning's n plastic pipe tradersmanning's n for pvc pipemanning's n for concrete pipemanning's n for hdpe pipeSome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement. For more information, please see here.Conveyance Technical Bulletin A Simplified Method Q = pipe capacity, m3/s n = Mannings n, a term used to describe material roughness (unitless) A = cross-sectional flow-area of the pipe (m2) R = hydraulic radius (m), 1/4 the diameter for full flowing pipe conditions S = pipe slope (m/m) Conveyance Factors

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manning's n for pvc pipemanning's n for concrete pipemanning's n for hdpe pipeSome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement. For more information, please see here.Corrugated HDPE Pipe - Lane Enterprises. Inc.Mannings N-Value for Design Tests consistently show a Mannings n in the range of 0.009 to 0.011. The major investigation (2005 Utah State University) recognized an effective Mannings n as low as 0.0100. Mannings n for design is conservatively factored to 0.012 for pipe plastic pipe in ethiopia - cotswoldprep.zaPIPE FACTORY ,Plastic Raw Materials ,EthiopiaLoion KALITY, Ethiopia Main Products Upvc Pipe Country/Region Ethiopia Links Ethiopia Rubber Plastics, Ethiopia Plastic Raw